Petroleum is naturally occurring substance that is composed of complex hydrocarbons that has a varied molecular weight located in the beneath the earth in the geologic formation. Petroleum together with coal is classified as fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are formed as a result of decomposition of living things after they die and get buried deep under the earth’s crust. This process takes million years to occur. Petroleum is made of hydrocarbons – which is a compound made of hydrogen carbon molecules – combined with other additional substances like sulphur. Petroleum occurs in crude form and after its extraction; it’s distilled into several petroleum products which include liquefied petroleum gas, asphalt, paraffin wax, diesel, gasoline, kerosene, tar, lubricating oils, jet fuel, and bitumen among others. These petroleum products have different application in industry to accomplish a wide range of tasks.
Petroleum is mainly classified basing on its location origin, the density of the raw petroleum, and its composition basing on the presence of various hydrocarbon components. Generally, the hydrocarbons found in crude oil are classified as; Paraffins, Napthenes, Aromatics, and asphalts.
Is a type of crude oil characterized by an asphaltic, dense, viscous nature and its asphaltenes content, which is very large molecules incorporating roughly 90 percent of the sulphur and metals in the oil. It also contains impurities such as waxes and carbon residues that must be removed before being refined. It has an upper limit of 22° API gravity and a lower limit of 100with a viscosity of 100 centipoise (cp).
It is also known as oil sands, bitumen has the same attributes as heavy oil but is even more dense and viscous. Natural bitumen has a viscosity greater than 10,000 cp According to API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity of bitumen varies from 50 API to 100 API (speight)
A higher proportion of heavy oils are volatile relative bitumen but both of them exhibit lower volatility as compared to conventional. Bitumen is relatively hydrogen deficient compared to heavy oils and therefor requires that during refining there be substantial hydrogen addition.
Principles of primary oil recovery, secondary oil recovery and tertiary oil recovery
It uses only the natural energy of reservoirs, and recovers up to 50% of OOI.
It’s also known as waterflood. Here water is injected to maintain pressure and displace oil from the natural system. This water acts as a form of energy to the natural system. Its recoveries are 25-45% OIP after primary recovery.
Includes all other methods used to increase the amount of oil recovered. Its recoveries are 5-20% of OIP after primary and secondary recovery
Primary and secondary oil recovery depends entirely on the displacement of immiscible fluids from the reservoir.
Primary oil recovery - It uses the natural energy of the reservoir to displace oil and gas. The mechanism includes:
Expansion of the gas phase
Exsolution of the solution gas
Secondary recovery (water flooding):- it uses injected water to displace hydrocarbon. In this process one fluid displaces another in the reservoir.
Oil is displaced in a well or number of wells towards a producer after water has been injected into it. At the initial stage, oil alone is produced as the part of the reservoir as the irreducible saturation is swept. This process continues until the capillary transition zone is reached to the producer and in this stage the breakthrough occurs that is the first appearance of water in the produced fluid. After breakthrough, the watercut increase increases in a progressive manner and water plus oils are produced. Finally, water only is produced after the lagging edge of the capillary zone reaches the producer.
If the displaced fluid is not overtaken by the displacing fluid then the fluid-fluid interface is stable. In a situation whereby the displacing fluid can move faster than the displaced fluid, then the interface will be unstable. In this condition the displacing fluid will be seen to move at the interface. This condition is known as viscous fingering.
How movement occurs
The ease with which the fluid can flow through a porous medium is referred to as mobility. Mobility enables displacement to occur. For this displacement to occur there must be a difference between effective permeability and viscosity.
Tertiary oil recovery
The two methods above does not factor out the efficiency of the displacement. To achieve high economic efficiency, then tertiary recovery is undertaken. For mobility to occur, the key factor M of mobility is undertaken:
This ratio of mobility depends on the saturation. EOR depends on the mobility control of various kinds of factors that may change the water and oil velocity, may also change interfacial tensions, and also change oil and water saturation. Basically, there are four key groups of EOR techniques available. These are:
Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery
Thermal EOR depends on the basic principle that heat increases the mobility of oil by lowering its viscosity. For more favorable displacement the mobility ratio is reduced as a result of the increase in the oil mobility in relation to that of water. There are basically four oil recovery methods. These include:
Cyclic steam injection
Fire flood and
Generally, these methods are extraction of heavy oils since they have very high viscosity and are very rich in high molecular eight aromatics and asphaltenes.
Cyclic steam injection check https://myessayservices.com/research_paper_for_sale
Cyclic steam injection or involves alternating injection of high quality steam and production of oil and condensed steam from the same well (blaine). Well are injected with slugs of steam at very high rates (millions of kilograms) for a short period of time (typically 10 days).The wells are then allowed to "soak" for a further period of days (5 to 10) and then oil is produced for 100 to 200 days (until the production rate is unacceptable). The process is then repeated. When the watercut becomes too high or the reservoir pressure too low for another production cycle, pools are often converted to a full steam flood (OIL RECOVERY). Cyclic steam injection is the most successful recovery method to date for Canadian heavy oil reserves.
Steam flooding, also known as steam drive, involves continuous injection of steam to create a steam bank in the reservoir. A pattern of injectors and producers are used in the same way as a conventional water flood (OIL RECOVERY). Steam flood uses much more steam than cyclic injection and the heat balance or energy balance is critical. If crude oil is burned to generate the steam, in theory 1 m3 of crude oil generates 12 m3 of steam. In practice, the thermal efficiency is closer to 3:1. Steam costs are very high and can amount to up to 50% of the value of the produced oil (OIL RECOVERY). Steam flooding has three actions that improve the mobility ratio in the reservoir:
• Heat reduces oil viscosity
• Thermal expansion of oil helps to free it from the reservoir matrix.
• Light hydrocarbon fractions are vaporized at the heat front and move ahead of the steam bank acting as a "natural miscible flood" (speight). The longest running and most successful steam flood was conducted in the Peace River oil sands in northern Alberta.
Fire flooding or in-situ combustion provides thermal energy to reduce viscosity by burning crude oil in the reservoir. The method requires a relatively high permeability reservoir. A heater or igniter is lowered down the well to initiate the fireflood (OIL RECOVERY). Oxygen or air is injected continuously to maintain combustion and move the front forward. Water may also be injected to provide additional steam (wet combustion). Fire flooding has three actions in the reservoir:
• heat reduces oil viscosity
• steam is generated in-situ to provide a component of steam drive
• combustion gases and injected gases provide a component of gas drive.
In forward fireflood, oil burns, water is turned to steam in the combustion zone. The lighter hydrocarbon fraction is vaporized and coke is left in the reservoir after combustion.
If the reservoir is thin, unconsolidated and pressure is low, conventional water flooding is ineffective and produces high sandcuts (OIL RECOVERY). Steam flooding is also ineffective in thin reservoirs because of high heat losses. In these circumstances, fireflood tends to be a last resort EOR method for heavy, viscous crudes.
Reverse combustion is a good idea that has yet to prove itself. Instead of igniting the oil in the injector, the producer is ignited and the combustion front moves out radially towards the oxygen supply (the injector) (blaine). The displaced fluids move towards the producer through hot sand so the oil is effectively upgraded in situ. If reverse combustion could be developed successfully it could revolutionize the production of heavy, viscous crude oils in western Canada.
One major problem is spontaneous ignition of the oil near the injector (blaine). This cuts off oxygen to the combustion front and the system reverts to forward combustion.
Electromagnetic waves are generated with down whole equipment to heat the oil and reduce viscosity. The technique is experimental and penetration distances are currently too short for effective economic production (OIL RECOVERY).
In this article, two doctors present their arguments regarding various issues on the USA healthcare system. The three biggest issues facing the United States Healthcare system according to Dr. Emil are medical ethics, access to healthcare and lack of choice.Dr.Van Mole on the other hand believes that healthcare cost, insurance availability and price and financing existing government entitlements are the biggest problems faced by the USA healthcare system. In addition to this, Dr. Emil seems to believe that the injustice associated with the healthcare system can be solved by giving Medicare to all while Dr. Van Mole believes that to provide for those without coverage requires a multifaceted approach. Dr. Emil believes that a profit driven system cannot provide a healthcare based on need while Dr. Van Mole thinks that Government needs are precisely the constraining point for nationalized healthcare.Dr. Emil goes on further to say that a third of every dollar on healthcare is spent on fueling the enormous healthcare industry bureaucracy while Dr. Van Mole vehemently states that the healthcare industry keeps honest records for all to see and criticize.
Dr. Van Mole seems to have a very callous argument. He says that no US service can decline services due to inability to pay but even if an uninsured person is treated first without paying, how will they pay the bill once it arrives? In addition to this he also states that nationalization would be ruinous as far as the healthcare system is concerned. He doesn’t seem to be thinking about those that cannot afford insurance but rather how the American environment would be affected.Dr. Emil seems to be more compassionate and understanding to those that do not receive adequate healthcare. His position is argued on a Christian basis, and says that the healthcare system should treat the sick just as Jesus would and policies such as nationalization should be put into place to cater for the less fortunate.This is well explained in https://myessayservices.com/buy_term_paper/extroversion-personality-essay-examples-outline
In an article on balancedpolicies.org, one of the pros of providing free medical services to all is that, “Free medical services would encourage patients to practice preventive medicine and inquire about problems early when treatment will be light; currently, patients often avoid physicals and other preventive measures because of the costs.” Moreover, “medical professionals can concentrate on healing the patient rather than on insurance procedures, malpractice liability, etc.” The article also looks at the flipside of the situation and says that, “Malpractice lawsuit costs, which are already sky-high, could further explode since universal care may expose the government to legal liability, and the possibility to sue someone with deep pockets usually invites more lawsuits.” In addition to this, “Loss of private practice options and possible reduced pay may dissuade many would-be doctors from pursuing the profession.” I believe that at the end of the day, free health care for all is the way to go. There are definitely some downsides to this but doesn’t every option?
Benokraitis outlines theoretical perspectives that apply to family, children, and parenting. The theories that are cited in the text include ecological, structural, functionalism, conflict, symbolic interactionism, social constructionism, social exchange, feminist and family life course development. The approaches drawn above hold varied perspectives regarding marriage and family. The following discussion will cover ecological, symbolic interactionism and family life course development theoretical perspectives.
Ecological perspective acknowledges the way families are influenced by the environment around them (Benokraitis 35). There are interlocking systems that shape the development of family and behaviors of respective members. The interlocking system includes microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem and macrosystem setting that manipulate the development and behavior of a family. The microsystem refers to the immediate setting that controls the daily life of the child. The system takes in interconnected behaviors, roles and relationships that affected the child
On the other hand, mesosystem encompasses the interconnection among different settings such as home, day-care or school. Parents establish interactions with teachers and religious leaders, and it could change the way they treat their children. While exosystem covers indirect settings or occurrences that affect a person’s development, macrosystem reaches the society and cultures that involve all the other interlocking systems. The systems identified by the theory affects the development of a child and overall family functioning. The theory also addresses major hurdles that affect parenthood such as drug abuse, adolescence, and marital well-being.
Family Development Perspective
Family development theory puts into perspective changes experienced by families. The changes occur within a lifespan of a family, and they do not include couples who are dating. The theory discusses a family cycle that a typical family encounters different periods and events. The cycle features marriage, child rearing or parenting stage, children leaving, retirement and ultimately death of one of the spouses in the family. Each stage of the family cycle requires spouses to carry out developmental tasks. The tasks encompass responsibilities and expectations that each spouse is supposed to perform in the marriage. Couples might be expected to show affection as a way of interacting and handling challenges that come as they get old (Benokraitis 37).
Conflict erupts along the way concerning handling children or budgeting for family finances. The theory confirms such conflict the greatest source of stress for the couple. According to the theory, the developmental tasks vary from family to another such as single-parent, step families or grandparent families. Problems and conflicts face each family as the members get older by age. The confrontations are passed from one generation to another. For example, the perspective of grandfather may vary from that of a grandson because of the age difference (Benokraitis 38).
The theory encompasses daily behavior of an individual by the use of ideas, beliefs and attitudes that determine the life of that person (Benokraitis 38). Benokraitis notes that there are particular beliefs, ideas and attitudes that feature families. The behaviors convey encoded message that cannot be communicated through a word of mouth. Symbolic interactionism recognizes use of symbols to develop interpersonal meanings and communicate to others by individuals. A person in a family setting uses words gestures or pictures that signify a certain behavior. Family recognizes symbols such as wedding rings, birthdays, anniversaries and following traditions of the family to mean love and companionship.
The author uses the theory to describe the importance of partners knowing how to deal with different perceptions of their significant others. The understanding would prevent break ups that often happen as a result of conflicting perceptions regarding meaning of love, communication and interpretation of love. Every member of the family had a respective role to play irrespective of their position. The roles of mother, father, son or grandfather are relational and complementary according to the theory. In addition, they have specific rights and responsibilities that are reciprocated by members of the family.
My favorite perspective is family development theory because it covers the development cycle of a family. Families show patterns that cut across culture and history. The stages covered in the family cycle can be utilized in therapy and counseling sessions to address family problems such as argument and sexual infidelity. Families can use the presented in the theory to challenge themselves on why they are not as successful as other families.
Different perspectives are needed in studying marriage and family because they shed light on aspects of family life that are not known by individuals (Benokraitis 29). Adequate information about the nature of family helps family members to address problems and results to the development and positive behavioral change. The perspectives provide enough information that can be used for sound decision-making in the family. The decisions guide couples in finding the right partner for marriage and prevent future conflicts that could result in divorce. The theories enhance critical thinking in order to shape behaviors in marriage or parenthood accordingly.
Benokraitis, Nijole V. Marriages & Families. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2011. Print.
That is my fantastic dog. He likes to run around and run after his tail.
Secondly, the appreciation by the ultimate consumer, the residents of the city is another plus to the way the city is running. The people appreciated the reforms that were put in place by the management of the city. This only portends the goodwill by these persons and it is good for the city in the sense that the people are likely to give the management maximum cooperation in the event that further reforms are to be initiated.
From a business perspective, there are so many weaknesses in the public works department which have hampered the efficient delivery of services in the city. To start with, there is a problem with the staffing of the public works department. That is why issues like duplicity of roles by the director of the department who is equally the city engineer are predominant. The number of employees in that department is not equal to the nature of tasks that have to be carried out.
Every business entity must have a vision or mission or guide to how its operations are to be carried out. In this case, the city did not have any such statements drafted to aid the employees and thus create a collective charter that all workers have to abide with. This is yet another reason why good returns could not be retrieved from the services of the city.
Another misgiving regarding the operations of the city is that there is a disparity when it comes to the contracts offered to the works. The fact that some employees work under long term contracts while others on short term is indicative of the likelihood that those on a short term basis may not be motivated enough to work diligently for the city of Carlsbad.
The nature of running affairs in the City of Carlsbad has been raising eyebrows over time. First, there is no cohesion within the various institutions that fall under the public works department. All the organs i.e. the Water District, Street maintenance, Fleet Maintenance, Facilities Maintenance, parks and recreation and the City Engineer work independently without interacting with other entities. Resultantly, there is no synergy, cohesion and cooperation between all organs under the public works docket and this compromises the productivity of the persons working in these conditions.
With the current operation success of the city being below the optimal standard of efficiency, a further threat has been introduced. The current population of the city is growing spontaneously. In the same breath, the infrastructure of the city also is developing rapidly. This implies then that in the next ten years, there will be a disproportional need of services from the city which will not correspond to the staff and efficacy of the city as it is right now. Therefore, if positive reforms are not implemented promptly, the city may find itself in a precarious situation.
Corporate Strategy (Vision)
Since the consumers of the services offered by the city have been so loyal and appreciative of the work of the management, the mission and vision of the city should be more people oriented. The vision should be to provide timely, quality and considerate services to all people of the city of Carlsbad indiscriminately to their full satisfaction.